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2018年陕西特岗笔试考前重要考点归纳(英语)

时间:2018-06-28:22 来源:未知 作者:蚂蚁巴巴 点击:

2018年陕西特岗笔试考前重要考点归纳(英语)

考点·词汇辨析

1.be used to, use to do 和 be used to doing 的区别

(1)used to do 表示“过去常常做某事”

I used to play football after school.过去我常常在放学后踢足球。(2)be used to do 表示“被用来做某事” This knife can be used to cut things.这把刀能够被用于切东西。

(3)be used to + doing 表示“习惯于……”,to 是介词,后需加名词或动名词。

He is used to living in the country now.他现在习惯了住在农村。

2.spend, take, pay, cost 的区别

(1)spend 的主语通常是人,往往用于句型(sb.) spend some money/some time on sth. / (in) doing sth.如: He spent three days on the work. = He spent three days (in) doing the work.

(2)take 常用于“占用、花费”时间,其主语通常为形式主语“it”或物。句式是:It takes / took sb. some

time to do sth = Sth. take(s) / took sb. some time. 如:

It took me three years to draw the beautiful horses. The work took me two days.

(3)pay 为“付款、赔偿”之意,主语通常是人,往往是 sb. pay some money for sth.或 pay sb. (some money for sth)。如:

He has paid the doctor 50 pounds for the medicine. How much did you pay him?

(4)cost 的主语必须是某物。句型是 sth. cost (sb.) some money。如: The dictionary cost me £ 20.

3. rise, arise, raise, arouse 的区别 rise, arise 是不及物动词;raise, arouse 是及物动词。

(1)rise (rose, risen) vi. 上升,升起,升高;上涨

说明主语自身移向较高位置,常用于日、月、云、雾、烟、蒸汽、温度、物价等,无被动语态。如:

The moon has risen above the hills. 月亮已经从山上升起。

(2)arise (arose, arisen) vi(.问题,困难等)出现;发生,产生;主语一般为抽象名词,如 problem, trouble, quarrel, difficulty, misunderstanding, disagreement。常用短语:arise from / out of sth.由……引起;因……产生。

如:

They are talking about problems arising out of the lack of communication.

他们正在谈论由于缺乏交流而产生的问题。

(3)raise vt. 招募;养育,栽培;提高;举起;说明主语发出的动作是要作用于其他事物的,往往有使物体达到其应有的高度的含义。可用于被动语态。如:

招募:to raise an army养育、栽培:to raise a child

提高工资、租金:raise salaries/ the rent

举起手:raise one’s hand提出问题:raise a question

(4)arouse 意为“激起,唤醒;使……奋发”,可用于被动语态。如:

He was aroused from his sleep by the doorbell. 门铃声把他从睡眠中唤醒。

考点·非谓语动词作定语的区别1.不定式作定语

(1)不定式的一般式通常表示一个将来或经常性的动作,完成式则表示该动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。

She is always the first (one) to come and the last to leave.

(2)如果作定语的不定式与被修饰的名词有动宾关系,在不及物动词后通常要加上适当的介词。

Let’s first find a room to live in / put the things in.

We have nothing to worry about. (= There is nothing for us to worry about.)

2. -ing 分词作定语

(1)-ing 分词作定语一般要求其动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生或是在说话时该动作正在进行,否则,要用从句作定语。

Do you know the boy talking ( = who is talking ) to the teacher?

Did you notice the boy sitting ( = who was sitting ) at this desk yesterday?

The man shaking ( = who is now shaking ) hands with Mr. Li visited our class yesterday.

★比较:

误:He is the man visiting our class yesterday.

正:He is the man who visited our class yesterday.

(2)单个的-ing 分词作定语一般前置,说明名词的性质、特征或用途等,-ing 短语作定语一般后置;强调动作的单个-ing 分词也常后置。例:

a sleeping car ( = a car for sleeping)

a sleeping child ( = a child who is sleeping)

the boy standing there ( = the boy who is standing there ) The girl singing is my classmate.

3. -ed 分词作定语

-ed 分词作定语一般表示一个被动或已完成的动作,-ing 分词表示一个主动或正在进行的动作,-ing 分词的被动式则表示一个正在被进行的动作。例:

a developed/developing country

He is a student loved by all the teachers.

The building being built will be the third Teaching Building of our school.

4.像定语从句一样,分词作定语也有非限制性的,其作用相当于一个非限制性定语从句。

The students, wearing their school uniforms, marched into the playground. The substance, discovered almost by accident, has greatly changed the world.

考点·倒装的用法

1.谓语的全部或部分(助动词或情态动词)放在主语之前的现象称为倒装。

image.png

2.“so / nor / neither + 助动词/情态动词/系动词+ 主语”与“so / nor / neither + 主语+ 助动词/情态动词/系动词”

(1)“so / nor / neither + 助动词/情态动词/系动词 + 主语”表示前面说过的情况也适用于另一个人或物时要部分倒装。如:

Peter can’t answer the question. Neither can I.

(2)“so / nor / neither + 主语+ 助动词/情态动词/系动词”表示“确实……”,仅是对前面内容的肯定或附和。如:

---The lights are still on in the classroom. You must have forgotten to turn them off.

--- So I did.

考点·虚拟语气 if 引导的虚拟条件句的结构

image.png

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